Hon. Prof. Mehta is a leading researcher in the area of chemical Sciences and presently National Research Professor and Lilly-Jubilant Chair Professor at the University of Hyderabad. He started his professional career at IIT Kanpur, then moved to University of Hyderabad where he became the Vice Chancellor during the period 1994-1998. Subsequently, he served as the Director of IISc, Bangalore for seven years (1998-2005). He remained attached with the Department of Organic Chemistry at IISc as CSIR Bhatnagar Fellow (2005-2010).
Hon. Prof. Mehta is a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) and a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is also a Fellow of all the three Science Academies in India and Third World Academy of Sciences and was the President of INSA. He is a recipient of Padma Shri from the President of India and has been conferred with "Chevalier de la Legion d"Honneur" by the President of France.